linux commands tutorials

Linux PUTTY Commands
 for debian & ubuntu apt-get f remaining fedora,centos, redhat uses yum repository
Linux commands related Apcher server

service apache2 Restart  for apache 2.4
service apache2 Reload  (not restarts the server just reloads the configuration file)
apachectl configtest  (checks the syntax errors to avoid startup failure)

for old version of apache just replace httpd with apache2 or apache.
More commands on apache page. enable disable modules, vim editor & nano editor etc.

To change directories: cd /path/to/your/directory
To delete a file: rm filename
To delete a directory: rm -rf directoryname
To unzip a zip file: unzip filename
To unzip a tar.gz file: tar -xvzf filename
To zip a file: don't know - try "man zip"
To change up one directory: cd ..
two directories: cd ../..
For listing Folders....
use "ls" instead of "dir"

For Entering into Directory..
cd folder_name

For going back to root...

for going back one step...
cd ..
To delete a whole folder and its content recursively, you can use:

rm -rf foldername/
To delete all files/folders in the current directory, without deleting the directory itself, you would need to use:

rm -rf *
Navigating directories

…change directory, method used for moving from one folder to another.

cd foldername/foldername2

…would take you to foldername2.

cd ..

…moves up one directory.

cd /

…moves you to root.


…prints to console your present working directory – where you currently are.

List contents

…list contents of current directory.

ls -l

…shows long format inc. group owner, size, date modified, permissions.

ls -a

…shows ALL files inc. hidden files.

ls -R

…lists contents of sub directories recursively.

ls -la

…the above options can be used at the same time.

ls foldername/foldername

…list items in folder without actually moving to it.

Creating files and directories/folders
touch file.html

…use the touch command to create files.

rm file.html

…use the rm command to remove a file.

mkdir myfolder

…use the mkdir command to create a new directory/folder.

rmdir myfolder

…use the rmdir command to remove a directory/folder, folder must be empty.

mv folder1/file.html folder2/file.html

…use the mv command to move a file. Can also be used to rename a file.

Compressing and backing up files and folders
zip -r foo/

…compress the folder ‘foo’ and all of its contents into a zip file called ‘’.

zip foo.html

…compress the file’foo.html’ into a zip file called ‘’.

File and directory/folder permissions and ownership
chmod 755 file.html

…changes the file.html file permissions, same for a folder.

chmod -r 755 myfolder

…changes permissions for that folder and all folders and files inside it recursively.

Here are the chmod octal numeric values

700: only owner can read
755: everyone can read but not write
775: only group can read and write
770: no-one but group can read
666: everyone can read and write
1777: everyone can read,write,execute

chown user:myself file.html

…changes the ownership of file.html to the user called ‘myself’.

check disk space linux
  • df
  • du disk used
  • df -h
Vim Editor commands
Exit :q
vi editor save and quit command
o get into it, press Esc and then : (the colon). The cursor will go to the bottom of the screen at a colon prompt. Write your file by entering :w and quit by entering, :q. You can combine these to save and exit by entering the command :wq
vim editor exit without saving
or crtc+c  :q!
sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-available/evasive.conf
CTRL+W to find, CTRL+X = exit  with save type yes or no.